Conservation and Restoration Procedures on Magnate Jewellery of Rudolf Normann von Ehrenfels

Author: Ivan Gnjec
Mentor: Marta Stanić, Teaching Assistant

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: First-Cycle Bachelor's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Metal (3rd year of study)

GNJEC IvanAbstract

The presentation concerns the conservation and restoration works on the magnate jewellery of Count Rudolf Normann von Ehrenfels. This particular magnate jewellery consists of a box with  a sword in a scabbard,  large buttons, small buttons, spurs, a hat buckle and parts of a belt. The objects are in the possession of the Museum of Slavonia in Osijek. Their  pre-treatment  condition, the conservation-restoration  treatment proposals and the works carried out to date are presented here. The subject is interesting due to the fact that this group of objects consists of many small items. After the spot test for gold had been performed, mechanical, chemical and electrolytic cleaning took place. The focus of the presentation is on interventions such as  electrolytic cleaning and gilding.

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Restoration of a Neo Baroque Chest of Drawers

Authors: Silvana Di Ceglie and Katarina Prkačin
Mentor: Joško Bogdanović, Assistant Lecturer

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Wood (1st year of study)

DI CEGLIE PRKACINAbstract

In this presentation of the restoration and conservation of a Venetian neo-Baroque chest of drawers the emphasis is on the cleaning methods and the approaches used in the repair of the structural damages and the damages which the object suffered as the result of war activities. In the cleaning of the dresser various methods were used,  from experimental blasting of its non-polished back to the  mechanical and chemical cleaning, as the restores had to deal with different materials, including  paper and metal. The solution of structural problems required reinforcement and consolidation, while the damages from war activities brought up ethical issues. The solution to this problem was found in the implementation  of the special method respecting the principle of the distinctness. The last stage of the restoration was French polish using shellac.

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Dealing with a Cradled Panel Painting

Author: Paulina Węgrzyn
Mentors: Aleksandra Hola, PhD, Assistant Professor (Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow); Charles Indekeu, Reader (University of Antwerp)

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (4th year of study)

WEGRZYN PaulinaAbstract

The main subject of the presentation is the conservation-restoration of a 17th-century Flemish panel painting with historic cradling. The treatment was done during Erasmus+ Exchange Program in Antwerp, Belgium, in the winter semester of 2017/18. The first part of the presentation discusses the very idea and the disadvantages of the traditional cradling and the problems that the system causes, considering several attempts that were undertaken in the 20th century conservation practice to improve it. To understand the problem better three test panels with various types of auxiliary panel construction were made and analysed. The results of the analyses are presented here. The second part of the article focuses on the possibilities of intervention on the cradling. In the case of the 17th century Flemish panel painting, it was decided to remove the faulty cradling. The process and the effect of its removal are described in details.

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Problems Associated with the Cleaning of "Unvarnished" Paintings

Author: Barbara Dragan, acad. restorer
Mentor: Lucija Močnik Ramovš, MA, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Plastic (2nd year of study)

DRAGAN BarbaraAbstract

The article is focused on the problems associated with the removal of dirt from the surface of paintings. The three chosen paintings of the Stations of the Cross are attributed to Leopold Layer and were made in the late Baroque period. The surface of the paintings appeared matt and an assumption was made that they were unvarnished. However, the examination with UV light revealed that some residues of varnish remained on the surface. It was suspected that all three paintings had already undergone a conservation-restoration treatment in the past, when most of the varnish had been thinned out. The paint layers were sampled and analysed, and the results confirmed that a strong adhesion between the dirt and the varnish had been established. Water-based cleaning systems were used to remove the surface dirt, which also caused some problems, as not all the surface behaved hydrophobically. Even though we wanted to avoid more polar solvents, their use was necessary because the water solutions left a cloudy veil behind and did not remove the varnish residues.

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Marij Pregelj Up-close

Author: Nives Slemenšek, dipl. kons.- rest. (UN)
Mentor: Tamara Trček Pečak, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture (3rd year of study)

SLEMENSEK NivesAbstract

One of the fundamental tasks of conservation-restoration, besides art preservation, is to get acquainted with the artist’s work, its technique and technology. As the very name of the "Marij Pregelj Up-close" project suggests, the main focus was on the artist, who is one of the Slovenian key modernist painters.  The project, which was carried out in cooperation with different institutions and faculties, took the authors through analytical researches of the artist’s paint layer resulting in methodological and technological investigation and conservation-restoration of  fourteen paintings by  Marij Pregelj, and the creation of the artist’s pallet.  The process, dilemmas and the project outcomes, with the stress on the conservation-restoration treatment, are  presented.

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Read more: Marij Pregelj Up-close

14th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CONSERVATION-RESTORATION STUDIES, ZAGREB 2017

Below you will find abstracts of the papers presented at the 14th International Conference of the Conservation-Restoration Studies. Full papers were not collected. The conference took place in Zagreb in April 2017. To learn more about the event, please click here

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Titanium dioxide photocatalytic coatings for cleaning wall painting surfaces

Author: Alicja Sawoniuk
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

SAWONIUK Alicja

The presentation concerns the research carried out by the author at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb during her Erasmus+ exchange period, under the mentorship of professor Suzana Damiani. The project was dealing with self-cleaning coatings based on aqueous dispersions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Two products were analysed: CristalACTiV™ PC-S7 and CristalACTiV™ S5-300B.

Titanium dioxide is considered to be very promising material for cleaning organic pollutants: it is efficient, inexpensive, non-toxic, compatible with lots of materials. Due to its photocatalytic properties and super-hydrophilic values it is commonly used in industry, especially in outdoor environment. The present work was carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of titania dispersion with interior wall paintings in buon fresco technique. The aim of the project were experimental tests with cleaning and protecting painted surfaces from soot. The photocatalytic activity of the coating on treated surfaces was raised under natural and artificial UV irradiation. Several laboratory tests and analysis (wettability, colorimetry, water vapour transmission) were taken.

Read more: Titanium dioxide photocatalytic coatings for cleaning wall painting surfaces

Importance of restoration and conservation of the historical book

Authors: Iva Carević, Katija Maškarić and Mia Perković
Mentor: Sanja Serhatlić, Expert Associate

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Conservation-Restoration (graduate study programme)
Specialization: Paper Materials (1st year of study)


Abstract

CAREVIC MASKARIC PERKOVICThe subject of our presentation is a book Breve Compendivm Nationis Glorisae Totivs Lingvae Illyricae by the author Martin Rosa. It was published in 1638 and is situated in Franciscan monastery in Rožat. Martin Rosa was representative of Franciscan Illyrism. The book is written in Latin and tells about creation of the world, Slavic cultural and political history, their language, geographical position and it is the only remained copy in Croatia.

Process of restoration took place in workshop of paper at University of Dubrovnik. The book is made of three parts which vary in dimension, thickness and in type of print. Through this presentation we'll show the difference between the state of the book when it first arrived in the workshop and after the restoration, as well the old techniques of making water marks, print, etc... Every part of the book required a different approach in restoration process.The book was in very poor state and had many mechanical and chemical damages, especially book cover and binding, because of bad conditions in which it was kept.

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The conservation of an African sword with scabbard made of skins of Nile reptiles

Author: Marcell Miklós
Mentor: Márta Kissné Bendefy, Senior Conservator, Head of Specialization of Leather Conservation

Department of Conservation, Faculty of Applied Arts Object Conservation, Hungarian University of Fine Arts (Hungary)
Study programme: Integrated study programme, Applied Arts Object Conservation
Specialization: Wooden Objects and Furniture (4th year of study)

MIKLOS MarcellAbstract

The topic of this presentation is the difficulties of the conservation (2015/16) of an exotic African sword with scabbard made of Nile crocodile and monitor skins being kept in the Museum of Ethnography. Through the cultural and historical classification and the identification of the reptile skins, this sword with its scabbard was turned out to be a very unique and special artefact originated back to the colonial period of Sudan. In the presentation the main tasks of the conservation will be discussed, such as the taking out the corroded and highly decorated sword from the sheath, the humidification and consolidation of the dried and fragile leather parts (including more than 100 strips), fixing other broken or damaged parts (horn, reptile fingers or the tail part of the sheath) and lastly, taking care of the safe storage of the object.

Read more: The conservation of an African sword with scabbard made of skins of Nile reptiles

The conservation of the painting with the depiction of Madonna and Child of Cracow Hodegetria type from church in Przyłęk Szlachecki. The reconstruction of the background based on existing grounds

Author: Maja Potrawiak
Mentor: Anna Sękowska, PhD

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art; Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (6th year of study)

Abstract

POTRAWIAK MajaCracow Hodegetria type painting is an example of the phenomenon of a widespread repetition of one image that in such scale is uncommon in the history of art. The original, probably not preserved until today, was imported to Poland in the end of 15th century. The painting from the church in Przyłęk Szlachecki dated circa 1500 that is discussed in this presentation is an example of its copy. Its study and conservation was carried as a part of the master thesis at Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow under the guidance of Anna Sękowska (PhD). The research revealed a complete overpainting of the image. The main issue was the 19th century background with chess board ornament due to its discordant style with no artistic values. Gathered information led to the complex intervention aiming to unveil the original painting layer and remove the later background. During the process, the traces of the original design of the background drawn on the panel were uncovered. This disclosure, along with an exemplar of the ornament from the painting from Chomentów created in the same workshop, served as the key indications for the reconstruction of the background in its possible original shape.

Read more: The conservation of the painting with the depiction of Madonna and Child of Cracow Hodegetria...

The examples of detachment of wall paintings practices on Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art

Author: Mia Prahin
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Associate Professor

Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated study programme, Conservation and Restoration of Art
Specialization: Paintings (4th year of study)

Abstract

PRAHIN MiaFrom the beginning of the study programme on the Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, part of the subject on Conservation and restoration of wall paintings is the exercise of transferring wall paintings. In this presentation different techniques of detachment of wall paintings and transfer to a new carriers are presented, including occuring problems. Detachment of wall paintings from the original carrier and their transfer are measures that have a major impact on wall painting and architectural objects which they are integral parts of. This fundamentally changes the composition and structure of the original work of art. Detachment and transfer are dangerous, drastic and irreversibile methods that severely affect the physical composition, material structure and aesthetic characteristics of wall paintings. Therefore, these procedures are justified only in extreme cases when none of the treatment options in situ are possible. The exercises of wall paintings transfers are performed on paintings that are painted by students of previus generations. They cover all three ways of detachment: stacco a massello (stripping the paint layer, layer of plaster and part of carrier), stacco (stripping the paint layer with a plaster layer) and strappo (stripping only painted layer). In this presentation only selected examples are shown derived using different materials and methods, various problems that occurred during work and ways in which they can be avoided.

Read more: The examples of detachment of wall paintings practices on Department for Conservation and...

Conservation and restoration of an oleography

Author: Tea Borovina
Mentor: Tanja Dujaković, mag. art., Assistant

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Graduate Study of Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Paper (2nd year of study)

BOROVINA TeaAbstract

The theme of this presentation is conservation and restoration of an oleography, which dates back to 19th century, and depicts the 3rd station of the cross – Jesus falls the first time. The object is part of a unit of altogether 14 oleographs, each of them showing one station of the cross. Some of them had already been restored, while others are still in the process of restoration. One of the restored oleographs will be presented here. The presentation will show complete process of a restoration treatment on the object. It will include examination of the object together with the analysis, which are done prior to any treatment. Furthermore, it will show the complete treatment (including tools and materials used) and explain each step that needs to be undertaken to preserve the object in the best possible way.

Read more: Conservation and restoration of an oleography

Carved stone from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages, Gravestone – Krstaca

Author: Katarina Milosavljević
Mentor: Mina Jović, Assistant Professor 

Department of Conservation and restoration, Faculty of Applied Arts in Belgrade, Academy of Applied Arts, University of Arts in Belgrade (Serbia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Sculptures and Archaeological Artifacts (4th year of study)

Abstract

MILOSAVLJEVIC KatarinaGravestone monument – Krstaca belongs to the group of stone sculptures from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages. Finding site of the Cross was a cemetery at St. Peter's Church near Novi Pazar.Gravestone monument dates back from 17th/18th century. The object was found covered with deposits of calcination and surface impurities. On the back side three iron anchors, attached by an additional cement binder, were spotted. Ultraviolet and Infrared recordings, USB camera and photo documentation of the object were performed. Impurities were also photographed using an USB camera. After the sample was cleaned, it was determined that the object should be treated with alcohol, ultrasound and EDTA. Missing parts (lower right corner , entire left wing of the cross) were fixed with brass anchors to the original and painted in colors similar to those of the marble original. The mold was taken from the sculpted positives and mass made of marble flour, cement, quartz sand and silicate solution was poured into moulds. Documentation of the entire conservation and restoration process  was submitted to the National Museum of Belgrade, along with the object.

Read more: Carved stone from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages, Gravestone – Krstaca

The wayang klitik (kerucil) javanese puppet theatre – research and conservation of five puppets from the National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw collection

Author: Paulina Kralka
Mentor: Jarosław Adamowicz, PhD

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art; Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

KRALKA PaulinaWayang klitik is a rare and underresearched type of traditional javanese puppet theatre. The puppets are carved out of wood and have leather arms attached to the corpus. They are also polychromed on both sides. Study and conservation of five puppets from the National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw collection, that is discussed in this presentation, was conducted as a part of the master thesis at Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow under the guidance of Jarosław Adamowicz, PhD. It aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the technology of wayang klitik puppet making. Therefore, an extensive research has been carried out on identification of the materials used as well as the evaluation of the puppets` state of preservation and the extent of previous alterations and restorations. The gathered data enabled to propose and undertake the proper conservation treatment. A lot of consideration in the project is given to the design of suitable exhibit method that would ensure proper conditions and enable viewers to admire the puppets polychromy on both sides. Removable prosthetics of the missing pieces of puppets to assist interpretation during the exhibit are also discussed.

Read more: The wayang klitik (kerucil) javanese puppet theatre – research and conservation of five puppets...

Issues on preservation of heritage in Plečnik's house

Authors: Petra Bohinc and Helena Pucelj Krajnc
Mentor: Tamara Trček Pečak, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Study Programme Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Wall Paintings and Stone Plastics (P. Bohnic – 1st year of study, H. Pucelj Krajnc – 2nd year of study)

Abstract

BOHINC PUCELJ KRAJNCThe theme of this presentation is our individual involvement in a project called Conservation-restoration of Plečnik's house.  The project was run by Institute for protection of cultural heritage, the conservation department of Galeries and museums of city Ljubljana and Museum of architecture and design. The project includes  preservation and conservation-restoration of the house itself and its garden, stabilizing indoor climate conditions (air temperature and relative humidity), managing all movable items and integration of Plečnik's heritage in the life of our society. The presentation will include examples of some problems and complications during the execution of conservation-restoration plan. Petra will explain the overall issues of the climate state inside the house and achievements after the preservation works and Helena will talk about specific objects in the house which require more contemplative approach. We will also try to define our opinions on the matter and present possible solutions.

Read more: Issues on preservation of heritage in Plečnik's house

The "Ecce Homo" painting by Leopold Layer: Identifying problems and solutions

Author: Ana Oblak
Mentor: Lucija Močnik Ramovš, MFA, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Study Programme Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Plastic (1st year of study)

Abstract

OBLAK AnaThe subject of this presentation is a Baroque painting entitled Ecce homo painted by Leopold Layer. Initial examination of the painting has showed the condition of the painting is unsatisfactory, which can partially be contributed to the previous conservation work. In the continuation, two main issues were discussed. Due to high sensitivity of the cinnabar pigment used mainly on red surfaces, it was necessary for us to consider carefully, which cleaning method would not compromise the original material. Another significant issue was the highly deteriorated original canvas, as well as choosing the proper lining technique and materials. Also practical aspects of the conservation treatment were considered. The purpose of conservation-restoration intervention was to alleviate the obtrusive effects of the ageing process, including the unsuitable past interventions, by taking into account the basic conservation principles of reversibility and minimal intervention.

Read more: The "Ecce Homo" painting by Leopold Layer: Identifying problems and solutions

Consolidation of stone sculptures using the biomineralization method

Author: Barbara Dragan, acad. restorer
Mentors: Blaž Šeme, PhD, Assistant Professor; Sabina Kramar, PhD, Assistant Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Plastic (1st year of study)

Abstract

DRAGAN BarbaraThe biomineralization method uses carbonatogenic bacteria to form biocalcite for the purpose of consolidating cultural heritage objects made of carbonate stones. The paper sums up my bachelors’ thesis, where I examined the effect of the consolidation of objects made of carbonate stones by the method of biomineralization. The very definition of the methods’ concept as well as the short process of the operation is presented. For the experiment, the commercial product Calcite Bioconcept, which contains two components: lyophilised bacteria Bacillus Cereus named Biocal and a nutrient called Nutrical, was used. The paper encompasses the presentation and the analysis of the results of colorimetry, drilling resistance measurements (DRMS) and the ultrasound velocity measurements (USV) before and after the consolidation. Measurements were carried out on laboratory samples of limestone and marble. Moreover, the description of the process of consolidation of a damaged marble relief, which is kept in Museum & Galleries of Ljubljana, is also included. Consolidation of the object proved to be successful, however, some improvements should be made.

Read more: Consolidation of stone sculptures using the biomineralization method

13th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CONSERVATION-RESTORATION STUDIES, DUBROVNIK 2016

Below you will find papers presented at the 13th International Conference of the Conservation-Restoration Studies. Please note that some authors did not submit full papers. The conference took place in Dubrovnik in April 2016. To learn more about the event, please click here.

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Conservation and Restoration of the Wall Painting Representing the Scene "The Shooting of Crucified Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian"

Author: Ana Grđan
Mentor: Neva Pološki, MA, Assistant Professor

Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration of works of art
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

GRDJAN AnaThe baroque wall painting representing the scene The Shooting of Crucified Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian was investigated and subjected to various tests with the aim of developing an appropriate conservation-restoration concept. The final goal was to reestablish structural and aesthetical integrity of the damaged painting; overpainted, destabilized by cavities and intersected by shallow scratches in the intonaco. Performing the tests in situ, special attention was given to the selection of the appropriate cleaning methodology for various extraneous materials, starting from dry cleaning methods and then proceeding with chemical substances such as AB 57, ammonium carbonate and cation exchange resin. Besides the aforementioned researches and laboratory investigations of original and added materials, tests were also conducted in the OKIRU workshop. Simulations of scratches were done on plastered test plates. They were filled with different plasters recipes and textured to match the adjacent surface. The plaster which enabled appropriate surface treatment was chosen to be used on site. Various recipes of different injection materials (lime and quartz sand, CaLoSil "paste-like", CalXnova and PLM-AL) were also tested. Researches included material shrinkage, flow properties and the capability to fill object-specific cavities. The established conservation-restoration concept was applied in situ, with great care given to application methodology.

The author has not submitted the paper.

 

Read more: Conservation and Restoration of the Wall Painting Representing the Scene "The Shooting of...

FTIR Analysis of Fresco Painting and Stone Sculpture Pigment Samples: The creation of pigment sample data base at the Arts Academy of Split laboratory

Author: Josipa Marić
Mentors: Miona Miliša, PhD, Research Fellow & Lecturer; Ivica Ljubenkov, PhD, Assistant Professor

Arts Academy, Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Archaeological Heritage (5th year of study)

Abstract

MARIC JosipaThe presentation reports on the results of the analyses of pigment samples from fresco paintings and stone sculptures and the creation of a data-base of pigments in the Academy's scientific laboratory. It points out the importance of collaboration with professionals from other disciplines, especially chemistry. Understanding chemical composition and degradation process in heritage objects is crucial for their preservation for future generations. Identification of different pigments is important in deciding which conservation materials to use, foreseeing their reaction with the binding medium, the effects of the environment on the degradation processes and the effects of the conservation treatment itself. The analysis of the pigments will offer better insight into the composition and age of polychrome layers, while the future data base will make it possible to find the connection with other polychrome objects and find the place of origin. The pigment samples were examined by handheld digital microscope and analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), a technique already used for diagnostic purposes in conservation of archaeological heritage. The reliability of these measurements is very high even with extremely small sample sizes. Sample preparation is simple and the results of the analysis are quickly available.

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Read more: FTIR Analysis of Fresco Painting and Stone Sculpture Pigment Samples: The creation of pigment...

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