Preventive conservation of daguerreotypes in Slovenia

Author: Ksenija Janković
Mentor: Tamara Trček Pečak, MA, Associate Professor
Co-mentor: Tina Buh, senior conservator, National Gallery of Slovenia

University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design (Slovenia)
Integrated study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Course: Conservation/restoration of paintings and polychrome plastic material A, 1st study year at second-cycle study course

Summary

JANKOVIC KsenijaPhotography presents an important part of our cultural heritage and that is why it is very important and crucial to find ways to maintain them. The theme of this presentation is to show the basic principles of preventive conservation of daguerreotypes to help protect and preserve them for future generations. As part of the diploma thesis Preventive conservation of daguerreotypes in Slovenia under the guidance of prof. Tamara Trček Pečak and senior conservator Tina Buh from the National Gallery of Slovenia, an inventory of all known daguerreotypes held in the Slovenian cultural institutions has been carried out. The purpose of an inventory of all the gathered data and performed statistical analysis of the results is to obtain and raise awareness about the state of the material, the environment in which it is stored and how we can prevent the process of decay. This presentation will also present the Slovenian and world history of daguerreotypes and outline the manufacturing process and the typical damages. It will also introduce conditions in terms of the storage and the factors that affect the lifetime of daguerreotypes.

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Conservation and restoration of painting "The Adoration of the Three Kings"

Author: Petra Richter
Mentors: Tamara Ukrainčik, MA, Associate Professor; Andrej Aranicki, MA, Associate Professor

University of Zagreb, Academy of Fine Arts (Croatia)
Integrated study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Art
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings, 5th study year  

Summary

RICHTER PetraThe theme of this presentation is conservation-restoration work on the painting The Adoration of the Three Kings. The painting is painted in oil on panel and it is the property of the Diocesan Museum in Zagreb.
The painting was in bad condition - damage had been sustained in all layers of the painting, with especially unstable zones where ground layer is separated from the wooden support, which has been damaged with woodworms.
To reduce the risk of futher loss, preventive measures (facing) was needed before starting conservation-restauration work. To find the best material for facing application and later removal, experiments were made on probes with imitations of all painting layers.
Following procedures were performed on the painting: preventive consolidation - facing, desinsection, analysis of microsamples, cleaning the verso of the painting, consolidation of the wooden board and painted layer, cleaning of the painted layer, restoration of the ground layer, retouching and varnishing.
The restoration work is accompanied by a thorough written, photographic and graphic documentation. Upon restoration the painting will be returned to Diocesan Museum in Zagreb.

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The problem of contemporary artwork’s conservation in the context of the artist’s notes and works: a case study of Maria Pinińska-Bereś’s "The Meadow of Your Body" - an artwork made using polymer foam

Author: Oskar Hanusek
Mentor: Grażyna Korpal, Professor

Jan Matejko Academy Of Fine Arts in Kraków(Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art 
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings, 6th study year  

Summary

HANUSEK OskarThe Meadow of Your Body was made by Maria Pinińska-Bereś in 1987. It is a horizontal, contemporary sculpture, with one element soft, made of cotton fabric. Originally it was filled with a "mattress" made of a sheet of polyurethane foam. The surface of the sculpture is covered with pink acrylic paint. The color and shape refers to the issues characteristic of Pinińska’s creations – femininity, feminism and eroticism. The main problem is the degradation of the polyurethane filling, which entirely lost its shape, density, elasticity and softness. Therefore the work of art lost its principal attributes.
In a broad archive of the artist, one can find detailed instructions about conservation treatments and specifications (also ideological) of used materials. Not only the appearance, but the type, elasticity or weight of material are important as well. The principal task was to remove the old filling, and replace it with a new material - that fulfils the artist’s ideas but is also durable. During the work, other problems were also raised like the recognition of artist’s technology or the cleaning of acrylic surfaces.

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A proposal to establish a more suitable micro-indoor environment for the two paintings by Valentin Metzinger in the Succursal Church of Žale, Kamnik

Author: Petra Juvan
Mentor: Tamara Trček Pečak, MA, Associate Professor
Co-mentor: Vincenc Butala, Ph.D., Full Professor

University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design (Slovenia)
Conservation and restoration of works of art (MA)
JUVAN PetraSpecialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings and polychrome plastic material, 1st year of study 

Summary

The topic of the presentation is the micro-indoor environment of paintings Saint Joachim and Saint Anne with Mary and Saint Florian and Saint Donat, painted by Valentin Metzinger, an important representative of Slovenian Baroque painting. The paintings are kept in the church of Mary and Joseph's engagement in Žale near Kamnik. The parameters of the church's indoor are not monitored rendering the pictures liable to damages. Using two different methods, we attempted to assess which environmental factors could pose a threat to the paintings and at the same time tried to explore the possibilities for establishing a more suitable indoor microclimate for the paintings.

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Short video documentary: conservation and restoration works on the sculpture of St. Michael the Archangel

Author: Ivan Tibor Grujić

University of Zagreb, Academy of Fine Arts (Croatia)

Summary

This video documented material is showing research, conservation and restoration works that have been made on sculpture of St. Michael the archangel, which is the theme of graduation work of Ivan Tibor Grujić.
In the late 1939, the sculpture came into possession of the Diocesan museum in Zagreb, but originally it was the property of St.Peter's chapel in Taborište. The chapel was roughly damaged by shelling during the Croatian War for Independence.
The video guides and documents every phase of conservation and restoration work that has been done untill now; including field and archival researches, scientific analysis (microsampling, XRF) and gamma ray radiation on the Institute "Ruđer Bošković" in Zagreb. By this occasion, a condense and shortened version will be presented and one completeness which is going to be a part of above mentioned graduation work.

Read more: Short video documentary: conservation and restoration works on the sculpture of St. Michael the...

10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE CONSERVATION-RESTORATION PROGRAMS, DUBROVNIK 2013.

Below you will find abstracts (in English) of oral presentations that were given at the 10th International Conference of the Conservation-Restoration Programs. Some papers are available in Croatian and some in English.

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Research Works on Izidor Kršnjavi's Easel Paintings by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF)

Author: Tina Bertović
Mentor: Vladan Desnica, PhD, Associate Professor

Academy of Fine Arts, University of Zagreb

BERTOVIC TinaSummary

As a part of the thesis "Research and conservation-restoration works on the five pictures of Izidor Kršnjavi" under the guidance of prof.dr.sc. Vladan Desnica, the conservation and restoration procedures have been carried out and specialized research has been conducted using several physical-chemical analytical methods. For the purpose of precise and non-destructive examination of elemental composition of materials, a portable instrument for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used. The method is based on the emission of secondary radiation from a material, which is excited by the primary X-ray beam. This emitted fluorescent radiation is characteristic for the investigated material and provides the information on substance composition. In this presentation, the basic characteristics of the XRF analysis is demonstrated through a variety of examples, with an emphasis on research work carried out on five easel paintings by Izidor Kršnjavi. Also, the potential problems which the researcher may encounter while interpreting the XRF results will be discussed trough specific examples.

 

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Conservation and Restoration Interventions on Fragments of Wall Paintings From the Archaeological Site of St. Martin in Umag

Author: Petar Gudelj
Mentors: Tonči Borovac, MSc, Assistant Professor; Branko Matulić, PhD, Full Professor

Arts Academy, University of Split
GUDELJ Petar

Summary

Theme of this presentation is restoration and conservation of wall paintings in the church of sv. Martin in Umag. The objective of the project was to protect the fragments of the wall paintings from further decay. Fragments were mechanically cleaned, desalinated, consolidated with vacuum method and the process has been documented with written and photographic data. Series of laboratory tests were carried out during the conservation and restoration process. Archaeological researches were conducted in 2010/2011 while the conservation and restoration of the fragments began in 2012 and was completed at the beginning of 2013.

 

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Antique Fragments of the Wall Paintings from Knedlov vrt in Kranj and Issues of Conservation-Restoration of Archaeological Wall Paintings

Author: Pika Škerlj
Mentor: Blaž Šeme, PhD, Assistant Professor
Co-mentor: Sabina Kramar, PhD, Assistant Professor

Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana
*Project realized in academic year 2012/2013*

SKERLJ Pika-mSummary

Main subject of the gradaution thesis are fragments excavated on Tomšičeva 38 (also named Knedlov vrt) from Kranj, that were excavated in the year 2005 by Magelan group d. o. o.. Also addressed are theoretical and practical issues that are specific to fragmentary finds of wall paintings, excavated on archeological sites. By analysing methodology and manner in which they were executed, alongside the meaning of wall paintings in antiquity, one can asses their value in local understanding of history. Some fragments had graffiti cuts made by Germanic tribes. Practical part of thesis represents results of analysis of mortars and paint layers.
Due to fragmentation of wall painting artefacts, long-term registration and reassembling of fragments, as well as reassembly and reconstruction are required. Registration and reassembly of fragments can be partially digitized, though such finds demand reconstruction for which it is necessary to seek parallels in ornaments from other roman excavation sites.

 

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Exploration, Restoration and Conservation Work on the Remaining Inventory of The St. Jacob on Očura

Authors: Karlo Vučković and Petra Kovačević
Mentor: Zvjezdana Jembrih, MA, Assistant Professor

Academy of Fine Arts, University of Zagreb 
VUCKOVIC-KOVACEVIC

Summary

The theme of this presentation is to review the performed research and conservation and restoration works on two polychrome wooden sculptures from the chapel of St. Jacob on Očura, with references to art history and conservation aspects related to this important pauline gothic-baroque church. During the years of neglect and a variety of devastation that followed the sacred edifice, its baroque inventory largely disappeared, and the remaining fragments are deployed and exposed to further deterioration. During our research we found, rescued, explore and conserve some of the sculptures, and their fate after the work is not yet certain. This presentation also points to the decline of the Croatian cultural heritage, and in the case of the remaining sculptures discusses finding possible solutions.

 

Click here to read Karlo Vučković's paper online, and follow this link to read Petra Kovačević's paper (Croatian only).

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Reversibility and Minimal Intervention as Focus of Lining Paintings: Mist-Lining Method

Author: Andreja Ravnikar
Mentor: Lucija Močnik Ramovš, MA, Assistant Professor 
Co-mentor: Barbka Gosar Hirci, MA, Assistant Professor

Academic restorer
Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana
*Project realized in academic year 2011/2012*

Summary 

RAVNIKAR Andreja-mThe lining of paintings is a very demanding conservation-restoration process in which several key features of materials have to be considered before deciding on the lining method. The lining must not affect the forces between the picture layer and the original support medium. Introduction of a substantial amount of glue between the original and the lining canvas can affect the elasticity of the painting and is thus better avoided. Conservators-restorers are developing new, innovative solutions in line with the latest conservation and restoration guidelines. The thesis which will be presented focuses on the characteristics, changes and types of injury to the woven support of paintings, the history and development of lining, as well as guidelines for selecting an appropriate stabilization method for the woven support. Thus, on the samples, two of the appropriate methods of the application will be presented: the nap-bonding method and the mist-lining method on various linings considering the two basic principles – minimal intervention and reversibility.
On the baroque painting Jezus med učeniki (Jesus among Teachers) from the Ljubljana St. Trinity Church detailed execution of the lining procedure will be presented. The choice of mist-lining method based on previous research, quantities of used glue, weight of added material and the ease with which the lining could be removed at a later time.

 

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Making Replica of Stone Pluteus From St. Peter the Great in Dubrovnik

Author: Vedran Kundić
Mentors: Ivo Donelli, Associate Professor; Miona Miliša, Lecturer

MA in conservation-restoration
Arts Academy, University of Split
*Project realized in academic year 2011/2012*

KUNDIC VedranSummary

The pluteus was originally a part of the altar fence in front of the altar in the church of St. Peter the Great in Dubrovnik. At an unknown point of its history it leaves the original location  and is used secondarily as a mensa of the altar of Our Lady of Health (Gospe od zdravlja) in the  church of St. Nicholas in Dubrovnik. The reason for making replica of the pluteus, tracing traditional techniques and tools for carving stone, appeared for the purpose of calculating the  time needed for making this and similar stone artifacts. The process of making this replica is documented using the time-lapse and stop animation techniques, which is done to emphasise the benefits of the mentioned techniques in video documentation of conservation and restoration of art works in general.

 

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Problems in the Restoration of Small Burse Due to the Complex Structure

Author: Ana Vlašica
Mentors: Lucia Emanuele, PhD, Assistant Professor; Danijela Jemo, Teaching Assistant

Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik

VLASICA AnaSummary

Restoration of the burse, from the Annunciation Church on the island of Lokrum, has been a challenge due to the complex structure and a small size. The proposal of works given on the basis of defects and analysis of raw material composition is altered according to new findings. Materials and methods of their application were determined by peliminarnim researches. Work had started with partially separation of decorative tapes from the lining to consolidate gilt metal threads. Humidifying with ultrasonic humidifiers removed impurities and improved condition of tapes and velvet. Separation of the inner lining obtained complete picture of the structure. After wet cleaning of inner lining in a detergent bath with 30% OrvusTextile WA Paste (Gaylord) edges where consolidate with adhesive coated threads. The humidification of partially separated outer lining was performed with solution of 96% vol ethanol and distilled water in a ratio of 1:3. The edges are consolidated in the manner indicated above. Krepelin silk is set to external lining in the form of grid preserving the original fabric with minimal intervention. Triangular fabrics were moistened with already mentioned solution using a brush and cottoned sticks, defects were consolidated inserting the sandwiches of tulle sewn in an appropriate form. Lining of the edges on the front surface was strengthened with krepelin tapes and alternating straight stitch. The connection procedure of separate parts was complicated due to the complex structure and production procedures.

 

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Testing Effects of Consolidation Treatment Using Paraloid B72 Solution on Sorption Properties of Degraded Wood

Author: Suzana Antolović
Mentor: Nađa Lučić, Expert Associate

Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik

ANTOLOVIC SuzanaSummary

Relative air humidity is certainly a key environmental parameter for the wooden support. As a hygroscopic material, wood reacts to fluctuating relative humidity by adjustments of its fiber's moisture content to the new conditions. Relatively small changes of moisture content in wood can affect its stability. Mechanical properties, bonds with other present materials, dimensions and geometry of the wooden object are subject to alterations in complex processes and often in ways that may endanger the artwork.
Consolidation of degraded wooden support with solutions of synthetic resins is still a widely spread and frequently inescapable method in conservation tretments, despite of all recent controversy. Experiences appear to demonstrate influences of such interventions on sorption properties of wood. Research presented here constitutes an attempt to investigate these influences more thoroughly by means of quantification of pertinent values. Along with application of materials commonly encountered and/or used in restoration practices, the procedure comprises of a sequence of controlled changes of micro-climatic conditions and measurements of corresponding values on sofwood control specimens and those treated with Paraloid B72 solution.

 

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Cleaning of the Decorative Frame From the Church of the Holy Cross in Split: Examining the Effectiveness of Enzymes

Author: Petra Perlain
Mentor: Sagita Mirjam Sunara, Assistant Professor

MA in conservation-restoration
Arts Academy, University of Split
*Project realized in academic years 2011/2012 and 2012/2013*

PERLAIN Petra-mSummary

The author discusses the problems of cleaning an 18th-century decorative frame from the church of the Holy Cross. The study was a part of her Master's thesis. The frame, which was originally decorated with mother-of-pearl inlays and ornaments painted with glazes on metal leaf, was overpainted several times. In 2002, an attempt was made to stabilize the paint layer and to remove the overpaints, however without any success. In 2011, enzymes' effectiveness in removing the overpaint was examined. Available conservation literature was studied in order to get an insight into the use of enzymes in the cleaning of polychrome surfaces. Stratigraphic analysis of the decorative frame was made and the structure of the original and of the overpainted layers was thoroughly studied at the Analytical Laboratory of the Conservation-Restoration Department of the Arts Academy in Split.  The dating of the object to the 18th century, combined with the results of the UV fluorescence analysis, narrowed down the scope of the reference materials. The presentation will end with an overview of the conservation-restoration works done in the past two years (2011 – 2013).

 

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Conservation-Restoration of a Modern and a Contemporary Painting

Author: Liza Lampič
Mentor: MA Barbka Gosar Hirci, assistant professor

Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana 
LAMPIC Liza

Summary 

The presentation focuses on conservation and restoration of modern and contemporary paintings. Some characteristics of painting technology - materials and manner of execution - in modern and contemporary art are presented, along with difficulties that arise in working with paintings that were created in the last century. The importance of the environment in which artworks of this sort are kept, is also mentioned. These topics are introduced through the examples of conservation and restoration of two paintings: Third station of The Way of the Cross (1931, Church of Blessed Virgin Mary, Mengore) by the Slovene painter Tone Kralj and Helianthus (2009) by Blaž Vehovar. The paintings were chosen to portray the development of new materials and ways of artistic expression in the last century and the influence inappropriate climate has on their premature deterioration. Damage that has appeared on the artworks in question is partially the result of artists’ choices of materials and their (mis)use, and partially the consequence of conditions in which the paintings were kept.

 

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Conservation-Restoration Interventions on the Painting Jesus on Cross From the Diocesan Museum in Zagreb

Author: Ana-Marija Ljubo
Mentor: Tamara Ukrainčik, MA, Assistant Professor

Academy of Fine Arts, University of Zagreb

LJUBO Ana-MarijaSummary

In this presentation conservation-restauration treatments on an both-sided easle painting Jesus on Cross made by an unknown author, at the Diocesan museum in Zagreb will be shown. Dubling an easle painting is an ordinary  conservating procedure witch strenghtens the canvas by aplying a new coat of textile on the back side. Because the painting was earlier a processional flag, it does not have a back side, but two fronts. It was necessary to find materials wich would make a compromise between function and aestetics. The use of crepeline silk because of its srength and tranparensy at the same time, in this role assures both firm support for the deteriorated canvas and adequat transparency of the silk so that both sides of the painting can easily be seen. After cleaning, canvas reconstruction, retouch and varnishing, a sheet of crepeline silk was applied with a sinthetic water based adhesive on one side of the painting. Finally the painting will be strained on a blind frame.

 

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Conservation-Restoration Operations Performed on the Sculpture Horse and The Rider by Raul Goldoni

Authors: Marta Stanić and Neven Peko
Mentor: Renata Andjus

Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik 

PEKO Neven-STANIC MartaSummary

During the third year of the undergraduate study, students Marina Parić, Andrea Paula Rajić, Marta Stanić and Neven Peko, as part of their professional training, took part in the restoration of the sculpture Horse and the rider by Raul Goldoni. This is dimensionally the biggest Goldoni's work. The sculpture was meant to be exhibited in the lobby of the Hotel Libertas in Dubrovnik. During one of the shellings of Dubrovnik in the Homeland  War, the Hotel was seriously damaged and so was the Goldoni's sculpture inside it. After the end of the war came years upon years of inadequate storage wich made the state of the sculpture even worse. In this presentation will be shown the process of the restauration and the challenges that the students involved in the project  came upon.

 

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Positive and Negative Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation in Paper Restoration

Author: Karmen Lečić
Mentors: Sanja Serhatlić, Expert Associate; Krunoslav Pisk, PhD, Full Professor

Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik
LECIC Karmen

 

Summary

Electromagnetic radiation is one of the main causes of artworks degradation, especially those made from organic materials such as paper. Its energy induces chemical and photochemical reactions which result in irreversible changes of material properties. On the other hand, thanks to the development of science during 20th cenutry, new ways in which it is used positively were found. Infrared, ultraviolet radiation and x-rays are applied in structural methods for documentation and investigation.Gamma radiation is used for disinfection and disinfestation and visible light and ultraviolet radiation for paper bleaching. These methods are non-destructive if the allowable amount of radiation is used.

 

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Yathagan – Between Functionality and Aesthetic Expression

Author: Tina Tomšič
Mentor: Valentina Ljubić Tobisch, Senior Lecturer

MA in conservation-restoration
Arts Academy, University of Split

TOMSIC TinaSummary

The author of the lecture presents the  conservation and restoration works on one of the five scimitars from the collection of historical troops „Kliški uskoci“. Yataghans have served more as decorative weapons than for combat use, what can be deduced by their preservation. Part of the problem of the restoration procedure was related to the mechanical damage caused by  the influence of time, the most time was spent in the removal of  the improper repairs. Taking out the impurities and corrosion products that have negatively affected the aesthetic appearance of the weapon was the major work. Yataghan's gold plated surface (decorative  metal filigree surface) was afterwards covered with bronze coating which  speed up the process of corrosion . Previously shiny gilded surfaces of the subsequent intervention have lost its original appearance.

 

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