Presentation of the Work on Wall Painting Conservation Projects in Ladakh, North India (2015, 2017)

Author: Klára Kolářová
Mentor: Adam Pokorný, PhD, Assistant Professor

Art Conservation Department, Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (Czech Republic)
Study programme: Third-Cycle Doctoral Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Wall Paintings, Easel Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture (2nd year of study)

Abstract

KOLAROVA KlaraThe paper presents a part of the author’s dissertation entitled "The Conservation of wall paintings made on earthen support,  by the eastern tradition, or by technique a secco", which focuses on different approaches and practices used in wall painting restoration. The wall paintings which are presented here were executed on a non-lime based support, with paintings done mainly a secco. In the restoration of wall paintings on earthen support there are some damages which are fairly similar to the ones found on frescos, as well as the completely different ones, both of which are discussed here. The main reasons of degradation are the monument's location itself, which implies extreme climates and natural disasters (earthquakes, fires and floods). Further damages are due to natural degradation process and sensitivity of the original materials.  Other degradations are caused by lack of maintenance and human actions such as the use for ritual purposes, the use of butter lamps, regular touching etc.,  and tourism. The paper presents two case studies of wall paintings in Ladakh, north India (supported by Tibet Heritage Fund), including the restoration treatments (which consisted in the consolidation of the paint layer, grouting, cleaning and infilling)  ethic dilemmas, the applied methods and the used materials.

Opširnije:Presentation of the Work on Wall Painting Conservation Projects in Ladakh, North India (2015, 2017)

Conservation of Roman Wall Painting Fragments from Issa: Research and Reconstruction of the Original Scheme

Author: Marija Lena Bošković
Mentors: Nikola Radošević, Lecturer; Krešimir Bosnić, Lecturer

Department of Conservation-Restoration, Arts Academy of the University of Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Wall Paintings and Mosaics (5th year of study)

Abstract

BOSKOVIC LenaArchaeological excavations carried out in 2012 and 2013, at the site of the Antique city of Issa on the island of Vis, revealed a large number of fragments of Roman wall paintings, dating back to the first century AD. Following the collapse of an ancient construction, the fragments remained buried for almost 2000 years. After systematic research into the original scheme and the appropriate conservation treatment, the fragments could become one of the most important examples of Classical wall paintings in the area.

When found, the fragments were in a relatively good condition. The paint layer was of high artistic quality, depicting, among other things, some interesting mythological characters. Because of their large number, only one third of them have become object of research and conservation. The aim of the laboratory analysis and cleaning tests carried out on the surface dirt was to better understand the original techniques and materials and to provide the conservators with valuable information concerning the future treatment. After a close examination, which included the positioning of individual fragments, some assumptions have been made concerning the original design.

Opširnije:Conservation of Roman Wall Painting Fragments from Issa: Research and Reconstruction of the...

Conservation and Restoration Work on the Transfer of the Early 20th C wall Painting by Osvaldo Bierti in the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Jastrebarsko

Author: Benedikta Vilenica
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Associate Professor

Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts, University of Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

VILENICA BenediktaThe Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary makes part of the Franciscan Monastery at Jastrebarsko. Parts of the Monastery date back to the 16th century. The medallion in question takes the central part of the ceiling, above the chancel. It was painted on top of several older paint layers, in 1908, as a part of the overall church decoration by the Austrian - Italian painter O. Bierti.

In 2012, the medallion was detached from the ceiling, using the stacco method, as the ceiling needed structural repairs. It was taken to the Academy of Fine Arts of Zagreb, The Department of Conservation and Restoration of Art. It was detached in in five sections. One of them was restored and conserved by D. Marijić, as part of the final year project, in 2016. Two of the remaining four sections are currently being restored by the author of the presentation as part of her final year project. The aim of this exercise is to prepare them for their reintegration in situ, as the sections are going to be put back in their place in the church in which the rest of the painted decorations have already been restored.

This presentation deals with the issues of detachment of wall paintings (particularly of those done on curved surfaces) and the making of new supports. It also gives suggestions for the display of the medallion.

Opširnije:Conservation and Restoration Work on the Transfer of the Early 20th C wall Painting by Osvaldo...

Conservation-restoration Works on the Two-light Window (Bifora) from the First Storey of the Papalić Palace (Split City Museum)

Authors: Jure Balić and Vinko Lipanović
Mentors: Ivo Donelli, Full Professor; Siniša Bizjak, Assistant Professor

Department of Conservation-Restoration, Arts Academy of the University of Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Stone (4th year of study)

BALIC LIPANOVICAbstract

The authors present conservation and restoration works carried out on the Gothic two-light window (bifora) from the first storey of the Great Papalić Palace, now in the care of Split City Museum. The builder of the Papalić Palace was Giorgio da Sebenico and the palace belongs to the Venetian type of residential architecture. The presentation gives a detailed survey of the pre-treatment condition of the bifora’s stone elements, including surface deposits and damages. Some of the most notable damages to the stone plastics take form of black crusts and cracks caused by static problems and the expansion of corroded metal elements. For the purposes of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the present salts, stone samples were taken and processed in the laboratory. The ensuing conservation – restoration intervention involved mechanical cleaning of the stone surface, followed by the stabilisation of harmful salts. All of the corroded metal elements were removed.

Opširnije:Conservation-restoration Works on the Two-light Window (Bifora) from the First Storey of the...

Papermaking: The History and the Technique

PERKOVIC et alAuthors: Mia Perković, Katija Maškarić, Iva Carević and Dora Franetović
Mentor: Sanja Serhatlić, Expert Associate

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Paper (2nd year of study)

Abstract

The method of manual papermaking has changed very little over time . The main changes that have been introduced concern the advancements in production technology. Today, handmade paper is made in small quantities, for special purposes. Almost all paper is manufactured, using industrial machinery. The presentation deals with the antique technique of papermaking, the ingredients and the making of watermarks, and the purpose of papermaking in restoration, in which it is used in the processes of integration and reconstruction of old paper. The authors also demonstrate the way in which they make it in their laboratory, at the University.

Opširnije:Papermaking: The History and the Technique

Effects of Abrasive Blast Cleaning Media on Non-Ferrous Surfaces

Author: Karmen Milić
Mentors: Filip Rogošić, Senior Lecturer; Ivica Ljubenkov, PhD, Assistant Professor

Department of Conservation-Restoration, Arts Academy of the University of Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration
Specialization: Metal (graduated in 2017)

MILIC KarmenAbstract

This paper  presents the effect of abrasive blast cleaning media on surfaces of different metals: aluminium, copper, bronze, brass, zinc, tin, and lead. The aforementioned metals were used in both non-corroded and corroded forms. The corrosion  was conducted in three different water solutions: sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid and sodium metabisulfite. The ensuing corrosion products were chloride and sulphate salts. The used abrasive media were: walnut shell, soda, glass beads, ceramic beads, silica sand, corundum, and steel grit. During the blasting process, the distance and the angle (45°) between the nozzle and the metal surface, and the blasting pressure (1 and 5 bar) were kept constant. The blast cleaned surfaces were than visually inspected with the naked eye and under a digital microscope. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of blast media on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals with respect to the properties of both the abrasive media and the metals, in order to facilitate the selection of the best blasting media to be used in future conservation treatments.

Opširnije:Effects of Abrasive Blast Cleaning Media on Non-Ferrous Surfaces

Conservation and Restoration Procedures on Magnate Jewellery of Rudolf Normann von Ehrenfels

Author: Ivan Gnjec
Mentor: Marta Stanić, Teaching Assistant

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: First-Cycle Bachelor's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Metal (3rd year of study)

GNJEC IvanAbstract

The presentation concerns the conservation and restoration works on the magnate jewellery of Count Rudolf Normann von Ehrenfels. This particular magnate jewellery consists of a box with  a sword in a scabbard,  large buttons, small buttons, spurs, a hat buckle and parts of a belt. The objects are in the possession of the Museum of Slavonia in Osijek. Their  pre-treatment  condition, the conservation-restoration  treatment proposals and the works carried out to date are presented here. The subject is interesting due to the fact that this group of objects consists of many small items. After the spot test for gold had been performed, mechanical, chemical and electrolytic cleaning took place. The focus of the presentation is on interventions such as  electrolytic cleaning and gilding.

Opširnije:Conservation and Restoration Procedures on Magnate Jewellery of Rudolf Normann von Ehrenfels

Restoration of a Neo Baroque Chest of Drawers

Authors: Silvana Di Ceglie and Katarina Prkačin
Mentor: Joško Bogdanović, Assistant Lecturer

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration
Specialization: Wood (1st year of study)

DI CEGLIE PRKACINAbstract

In this presentation of the restoration and conservation of a Venetian neo-Baroque chest of drawers the emphasis is on the cleaning methods and the approaches used in the repair of the structural damages and the damages which the object suffered as the result of war activities. In the cleaning of the dresser various methods were used,  from experimental blasting of its non-polished back to the  mechanical and chemical cleaning, as the restores had to deal with different materials, including  paper and metal. The solution of structural problems required reinforcement and consolidation, while the damages from war activities brought up ethical issues. The solution to this problem was found in the implementation  of the special method respecting the principle of the distinctness. The last stage of the restoration was French polish using shellac.

Opširnije:Restoration of a Neo Baroque Chest of Drawers

Dealing with a Cradled Panel Painting

Author: Paulina Węgrzyn
Mentors: Aleksandra Hola, PhD, Assistant Professor (Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow); Charles Indekeu, Reader (University of Antwerp)

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (4th year of study)

WEGRZYN PaulinaAbstract

The main subject of the presentation is the conservation-restoration of a 17th-century Flemish panel painting with historic cradling. The treatment was done during Erasmus+ Exchange Program in Antwerp, Belgium, in the winter semester of 2017/18. The first part of the presentation discusses the very idea and the disadvantages of the traditional cradling and the problems that the system causes, considering several attempts that were undertaken in the 20th century conservation practice to improve it. To understand the problem better three test panels with various types of auxiliary panel construction were made and analysed. The results of the analyses are presented here. The second part of the article focuses on the possibilities of intervention on the cradling. In the case of the 17th century Flemish panel painting, it was decided to remove the faulty cradling. The process and the effect of its removal are described in details.

Opširnije:Dealing with a Cradled Panel Painting

Problems Associated with the Cleaning of "Unvarnished" Paintings

Author: Barbara Dragan, acad. restorer
Mentor: Lucija Močnik Ramovš, MA, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Plastic (2nd year of study)

DRAGAN BarbaraAbstract

The article is focused on the problems associated with the removal of dirt from the surface of paintings. The three chosen paintings of the Stations of the Cross are attributed to Leopold Layer and were made in the late Baroque period. The surface of the paintings appeared matt and an assumption was made that they were unvarnished. However, the examination with UV light revealed that some residues of varnish remained on the surface. It was suspected that all three paintings had already undergone a conservation-restoration treatment in the past, when most of the varnish had been thinned out. The paint layers were sampled and analysed, and the results confirmed that a strong adhesion between the dirt and the varnish had been established. Water-based cleaning systems were used to remove the surface dirt, which also caused some problems, as not all the surface behaved hydrophobically. Even though we wanted to avoid more polar solvents, their use was necessary because the water solutions left a cloudy veil behind and did not remove the varnish residues.

Opširnije:Problems Associated with the Cleaning of "Unvarnished" Paintings

Marij Pregelj Up-close

Author: Nives Slemenšek, dipl. kons.- rest. (UN)
Mentor: Tamara Trček Pečak, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art
Specialization: Paintings and Polychrome Sculpture (3rd year of study)

SLEMENSEK NivesAbstract

One of the fundamental tasks of conservation-restoration, besides art preservation, is to get acquainted with the artist’s work, its technique and technology. As the very name of the "Marij Pregelj Up-close" project suggests, the main focus was on the artist, who is one of the Slovenian key modernist painters.  The project, which was carried out in cooperation with different institutions and faculties, took the authors through analytical researches of the artist’s paint layer resulting in methodological and technological investigation and conservation-restoration of  fourteen paintings by  Marij Pregelj, and the creation of the artist’s pallet.  The process, dilemmas and the project outcomes, with the stress on the conservation-restoration treatment, are  presented.

Opširnije:Marij Pregelj Up-close

14. MEĐUNARODNA KONFERENCIJA STUDIJA KONZERVACIJE-RESTAURACIJE (ZAGREB 2017.)

Ispod se nalaze sažeci usmenih izlaganja predstavljenih na 14. međunarodnoj konferenciji studija konzervacije-restauracije. Cjeloviti tekstovi izlaganja nisu dostupni. Konferencija je održana 2017. godine u Zagrebu, a program možete pogledati ovdje.

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Titanium dioxide photocatalytic coatings for cleaning wall painting surfaces

Author: Alicja Sawoniuk
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Associate Professor

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

SAWONIUK Alicja

The presentation concerns the research carried out by the author at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb during her Erasmus+ exchange period, under the mentorship of professor Suzana Damiani. The project was dealing with self-cleaning coatings based on aqueous dispersions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Two products were analysed: CristalACTiV™ PC-S7 and CristalACTiV™ S5-300B.

Titanium dioxide is considered to be very promising material for cleaning organic pollutants: it is efficient, inexpensive, non-toxic, compatible with lots of materials. Due to its photocatalytic properties and super-hydrophilic values it is commonly used in industry, especially in outdoor environment. The present work was carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of titania dispersion with interior wall paintings in buon fresco technique. The aim of the project were experimental tests with cleaning and protecting painted surfaces from soot. The photocatalytic activity of the coating on treated surfaces was raised under natural and artificial UV irradiation. Several laboratory tests and analysis (wettability, colorimetry, water vapour transmission) were taken.

Opširnije:Titanium dioxide photocatalytic coatings for cleaning wall painting surfaces

Importance of restoration and conservation of the historical book

Authors: Iva Carević, Katija Maškarić and Mia Perković
Mentor: Sanja Serhatlić, Expert Associate

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Conservation-Restoration (graduate study programme)
Specialization: Paper Materials (1st year of study)


Abstract

CAREVIC MASKARIC PERKOVICThe subject of our presentation is a book Breve Compendivm Nationis Glorisae Totivs Lingvae Illyricae by the author Martin Rosa. It was published in 1638 and is situated in Franciscan monastery in Rožat. Martin Rosa was representative of Franciscan Illyrism. The book is written in Latin and tells about creation of the world, Slavic cultural and political history, their language, geographical position and it is the only remained copy in Croatia.

Process of restoration took place in workshop of paper at University of Dubrovnik. The book is made of three parts which vary in dimension, thickness and in type of print. Through this presentation we'll show the difference between the state of the book when it first arrived in the workshop and after the restoration, as well the old techniques of making water marks, print, etc... Every part of the book required a different approach in restoration process.The book was in very poor state and had many mechanical and chemical damages, especially book cover and binding, because of bad conditions in which it was kept.

Opširnije:Importance of restoration and conservation of the historical book

The conservation of an African sword with scabbard made of skins of Nile reptiles

Author: Marcell Miklós
Mentor: Márta Kissné Bendefy, Senior Conservator, Head of Specialization of Leather Conservation

Department of Conservation, Faculty of Applied Arts Object Conservation, Hungarian University of Fine Arts (Hungary)
Study programme: Integrated study programme, Applied Arts Object Conservation
Specialization: Wooden Objects and Furniture (4th year of study)

MIKLOS MarcellAbstract

The topic of this presentation is the difficulties of the conservation (2015/16) of an exotic African sword with scabbard made of Nile crocodile and monitor skins being kept in the Museum of Ethnography. Through the cultural and historical classification and the identification of the reptile skins, this sword with its scabbard was turned out to be a very unique and special artefact originated back to the colonial period of Sudan. In the presentation the main tasks of the conservation will be discussed, such as the taking out the corroded and highly decorated sword from the sheath, the humidification and consolidation of the dried and fragile leather parts (including more than 100 strips), fixing other broken or damaged parts (horn, reptile fingers or the tail part of the sheath) and lastly, taking care of the safe storage of the object.

Opširnije:The conservation of an African sword with scabbard made of skins of Nile reptiles

The conservation of the painting with the depiction of Madonna and Child of Cracow Hodegetria type from church in Przyłęk Szlachecki. The reconstruction of the background based on existing grounds

Author: Maja Potrawiak
Mentor: Anna Sękowska, PhD

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art; Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (6th year of study)

Abstract

POTRAWIAK MajaCracow Hodegetria type painting is an example of the phenomenon of a widespread repetition of one image that in such scale is uncommon in the history of art. The original, probably not preserved until today, was imported to Poland in the end of 15th century. The painting from the church in Przyłęk Szlachecki dated circa 1500 that is discussed in this presentation is an example of its copy. Its study and conservation was carried as a part of the master thesis at Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow under the guidance of Anna Sękowska (PhD). The research revealed a complete overpainting of the image. The main issue was the 19th century background with chess board ornament due to its discordant style with no artistic values. Gathered information led to the complex intervention aiming to unveil the original painting layer and remove the later background. During the process, the traces of the original design of the background drawn on the panel were uncovered. This disclosure, along with an exemplar of the ornament from the painting from Chomentów created in the same workshop, served as the key indications for the reconstruction of the background in its possible original shape.

Opširnije:The conservation of the painting with the depiction of Madonna and Child of Cracow Hodegetria...

The examples of detachment of wall paintings practices on Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art

Author: Mia Prahin
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Associate Professor

Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated study programme, Conservation and Restoration of Art
Specialization: Paintings (4th year of study)

Abstract

PRAHIN MiaFrom the beginning of the study programme on the Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, part of the subject on Conservation and restoration of wall paintings is the exercise of transferring wall paintings. In this presentation different techniques of detachment of wall paintings and transfer to a new carriers are presented, including occuring problems. Detachment of wall paintings from the original carrier and their transfer are measures that have a major impact on wall painting and architectural objects which they are integral parts of. This fundamentally changes the composition and structure of the original work of art. Detachment and transfer are dangerous, drastic and irreversibile methods that severely affect the physical composition, material structure and aesthetic characteristics of wall paintings. Therefore, these procedures are justified only in extreme cases when none of the treatment options in situ are possible. The exercises of wall paintings transfers are performed on paintings that are painted by students of previus generations. They cover all three ways of detachment: stacco a massello (stripping the paint layer, layer of plaster and part of carrier), stacco (stripping the paint layer with a plaster layer) and strappo (stripping only painted layer). In this presentation only selected examples are shown derived using different materials and methods, various problems that occurred during work and ways in which they can be avoided.

Opširnije:The examples of detachment of wall paintings practices on Department for Conservation and...

Conservation and restoration of an oleography

Author: Tea Borovina
Mentor: Tanja Dujaković, mag. art., Assistant

Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Graduate Study of Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Paper (2nd year of study)

BOROVINA TeaAbstract

The theme of this presentation is conservation and restoration of an oleography, which dates back to 19th century, and depicts the 3rd station of the cross – Jesus falls the first time. The object is part of a unit of altogether 14 oleographs, each of them showing one station of the cross. Some of them had already been restored, while others are still in the process of restoration. One of the restored oleographs will be presented here. The presentation will show complete process of a restoration treatment on the object. It will include examination of the object together with the analysis, which are done prior to any treatment. Furthermore, it will show the complete treatment (including tools and materials used) and explain each step that needs to be undertaken to preserve the object in the best possible way.

Opširnije:Conservation and restoration of an oleography

Carved stone from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages, Gravestone – Krstaca

Author: Katarina Milosavljević
Mentor: Mina Jović, Assistant Professor 

Department of Conservation and restoration, Faculty of Applied Arts in Belgrade, Academy of Applied Arts, University of Arts in Belgrade (Serbia)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration
Specialization: Sculptures and Archaeological Artifacts (4th year of study)

Abstract

MILOSAVLJEVIC KatarinaGravestone monument – Krstaca belongs to the group of stone sculptures from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages. Finding site of the Cross was a cemetery at St. Peter's Church near Novi Pazar.Gravestone monument dates back from 17th/18th century. The object was found covered with deposits of calcination and surface impurities. On the back side three iron anchors, attached by an additional cement binder, were spotted. Ultraviolet and Infrared recordings, USB camera and photo documentation of the object were performed. Impurities were also photographed using an USB camera. After the sample was cleaned, it was determined that the object should be treated with alcohol, ultrasound and EDTA. Missing parts (lower right corner , entire left wing of the cross) were fixed with brass anchors to the original and painted in colors similar to those of the marble original. The mold was taken from the sculpted positives and mass made of marble flour, cement, quartz sand and silicate solution was poured into moulds. Documentation of the entire conservation and restoration process  was submitted to the National Museum of Belgrade, along with the object.

Opširnije:Carved stone from the archaeological collection of the late Middle Ages, Gravestone – Krstaca

The wayang klitik (kerucil) javanese puppet theatre – research and conservation of five puppets from the National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw collection

Author: Paulina Kralka
Mentor: Jarosław Adamowicz, PhD

Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art; Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków (Poland)
Study programme: Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art MA Programme
Specialization: Paintings (5th year of study)

Abstract

KRALKA PaulinaWayang klitik is a rare and underresearched type of traditional javanese puppet theatre. The puppets are carved out of wood and have leather arms attached to the corpus. They are also polychromed on both sides. Study and conservation of five puppets from the National Museum of Ethnography in Warsaw collection, that is discussed in this presentation, was conducted as a part of the master thesis at Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow under the guidance of Jarosław Adamowicz, PhD. It aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the technology of wayang klitik puppet making. Therefore, an extensive research has been carried out on identification of the materials used as well as the evaluation of the puppets` state of preservation and the extent of previous alterations and restorations. The gathered data enabled to propose and undertake the proper conservation treatment. A lot of consideration in the project is given to the design of suitable exhibit method that would ensure proper conditions and enable viewers to admire the puppets polychromy on both sides. Removable prosthetics of the missing pieces of puppets to assist interpretation during the exhibit are also discussed.

Opširnije:The wayang klitik (kerucil) javanese puppet theatre – research and conservation of five puppets...

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