Comparison of several adequate methods for reconstructing missing part on the same cultural heritage object made of metal

Author: Ira Fabrio
Mentor: Marta Kotlar, MA, Teaching Assistant

Institution: Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation- Restoration, graduated in 2021
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of metal

Abstract
Many cultural heritage objects made of metal have suffered mechanical damage due to use, improper handling, negligence, corrosion, etc. And have some missing parts. During conservation-restoration, it is important to determine whether it is necessary to make a reconstruction of the missing part and which aspects and principles need to be taken into account.
With the development of technologies, there are more possibilities for making reconstructions, each with its positive and negative sides. The aim of this presentation is to compare several methods used in conservation-restoration practice. For a better understanding of the problem and visualization, an everyday metal object owned by the Dubrovnik Museums, on which the author worked as part of her Master's thesis, will be used as an example.

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Conserving pottery from Kopila – The city of the dead above field of life

Authors: Gloria Loborec; Laura Divković
Mentor: Kristina Kojan Goluža, Assistant Professor, MA

Institution: Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Conservation-Restoration, 4th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of ceramics

Abstract
The island of Korčula, Croatia. Through archeological excavations the arhaeologists in the Kopila area have uncovered and researched a total of 5 tombs, through which the funeral ritual of the people buried can be read in a very illustrative way, as well as the position of this settlement in the civilizational movements on the Adriatic during the last 4 centuries BC. From one of the graves – G7, we got the whole collected material in our studio in 2018. In that particular tomb children were buried through the period of 200 years. The scientific studies of the bones showed that the oldest child was 5 years old. After documenting each fragment and assembling a few thousand shards of pottery, more than 140 vessels of exclusively imported Hellenistic production have stand out from the others (eg. Gnathia-type ceramics of Apulian and Isis production, black-gloss and gray-coated). At the beginning the material was tested to water uptake and then to the varieties of conservation products which showed that we are not dealing with just the sensitive story but also very delicate material. The presentation will show all of the steps of conservation procedure, done untill now, including documenting, assembling, cleaning, filling in the lost material and the retouching choices we made.

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Conservation and restoration treatment of a leather saddle

Author: Ema Thür
Mentors: Sanja Serhatlić, Assistant Professor; Tea Borovina, MA, Expert Associate

Institution: Art and Restoration Department, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master’s Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration, graduated in academic year 2019/2020
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paper

Abstract
As a material, leather has been used very early in human history for writing, printing and illuminating, but also in contemporary design for various artefacts. Since leather is very hygroscopic and quickly releases and absorbs moisture, which can often result in numerous damages, it is necessary to know its structure, manufacturing process and adaptation to the environment. Each of the above findings can provide useful information in determining further conservation and restoration work. The significance and purpose of this approach are explained through the conservation and restoration treatment of a leather saddle from the 19th century.

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Minimal Intervention: The hidden beauty of a 19th century iconostasis cross

Author: Teodora Raicu
Mentors: Cristina-Maria Dăneasă, Assistant Professor; Márta-Júlia Guttmann, Assistant Professor

Institutions: Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (Romania) – topic was completed at this institution Ca’ Foscari University of Venice (Italy) – currently studying
Study programmes: Conservation-restoration study and Conservation Science and Technology for Cultural Heritage Master’s Programme, 1st and 4th year of study
Specialization: Visual arts

Abstract
Art conservation requires a deep knowledge of both the artist and the materials that he used. The 19th-century iconostasis cross from the Fofeldea village found in Sibiu county, Romania, had suffered from an insect attack, being in a critical state of conservation. Therefore, firstly, since the artist that painted it was known, whose name was Popa Ioan Grigorievici, the artwork was compared to his other pieces-of-art to find some similarities not only from an aesthetical point of view but also from a chemical one, focusing on whether the pigments that the artist used were the same throughout his career. The materials that the cross was composed of were analyzed through the use of methods such as XRF and ATR FT-IR and then the conservation and restoration process was initiated, which was centered on the principle of minimal intervention. It was decided not to hide the traces of the biological attack to keep the history of the cross. It is of great importance for the object to be in a stable state, but its meaning and the events that it went through should not be erased.

Speaker's biography
TEODORA RAICU was born in Hațeg, Hunedoara County, Romania on January 26, 1999. From 2017 to 2020 she was a Bachelor’s degree student at Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, with a passion for the scientific aspects within the field of conservation and restoration. Thus, for the Master’s degree she decided to dvelve into the study of science applied to cultural heritage at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, where she is currently studying. She volunteered for various restoration projects in order to enhance her skills and also as a translator for Khan Academy’s history of art articles from English to Romanian.

Wall cabinets in the Sibiu area

Author: Andrei Buda
Mentors: Cristina Dăneasă, Assistant Professor; Márta Júlia Guttmann, Assistant Professor

Institution: Department of History, Heritage and Protestant Theology; Faculty of Social and Human Sciences; Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ULBS) (Romania)
Study programme: Study of Conservation-restoration, graduated in 2019/2020
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of polychrome wood

Abstract
Many of the wall cabinets have been kept in the same homes for hundreds of years, due to the fact that they were difficult to dismantle. We find most of them overpainted, because in time dirt deposits covered the surface, which became unsightly for the owner. The presentation deals with case studies regarding two wall cabinets in the Sibiu area. Restoration operations are described, and the overpaint removal process is detailed. In the end, the revealed original paintings are compared to other decorations of wall cabinets in this area.

Speaker's biography
ANDREI BUDA, born in 1996, completed undergraduate studies in 2015 at the "Sigismund Toduță" High School of Arts in Deva, specializing in Graphic Design. He is very skilled in wood carving. He obtained bachelor’s degree in conservation and restoration (2018) and master’s degree in the conservation and restoration of painted wood (2020) at "Lucian Blaga" University in Sibiu. During his studies he volunteered at the conservation departments of the Astra Museum and the Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu. Currently is working as a conservator-restorer of painted wood.

The restoration of the 'Jesus Christ the Vine' glass icon

Author: Olaru Vasilica Iuliana
Mentors: Mirel Bucur, Assistant Professor; Marta-Julia Guttmann, Assistant Professor

Institution: Department of History, Heritage and Protestant Theology; Faculty of Social and Human Sciences; Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ULBS) (Romania)
Study programme: Conservation-restoration study, 3rd year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings

Abstract
The study and the restoration of a reverse painting on glass is presented, the icon entitled Jesus Christ the Vine. The first part deals with the Eucharistic theme of Jesus Christ the Vine from an iconographic point of view, showing how this scene was interpreted in the reverse painting on glass centers from Romania in the 18th century (Nicula, Șcheii Brașovului, Alba-Iulia and Făgăraș), and introduces the Grecu brothers, folk artists from Făgăraș, the authors of the reverse painting on glass in question. The second part presents the conservation state of the glass icon and its restoration process.

Speaker's biography
VASILICA IULIANA OLARU was born in Neamț county, Romania, on July 17, 1999. After graduating the high school, she enrolled at the “Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, for the specialization Conservation and Restoration. At bachelor level she got acquainted with basic interventions on heritage object. Her major is in restoration of reverse painting on glass. After obtaining bachelor’s degree she intends to continue her studies in conservation-restoration at master level. In her leisure time, she likes to sing, paint, and read.

Treatment of a polyurethane foam armchair – Aagaard Andersen’s 'Portrait of my Mother’s Chesterfield'

Author: Laura Jacobs
Mentor: Nathalie Richard, Decorative Arts Conservator at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

Institution: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Queen’s Master of Art Conservation, internship placement) (Canada)
Study programme: Master of Art Conservation, 1st year of study
Specialization: Artifacts

Abstract
The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts holds one of North America’s greatest design collection. Amongst their collected works stands Danish designer Gunnar Aagaard Andersen’s Portrait of my Mother’s Chesterfield: a display of experimentation with a modern material and manufacturing technique of the time. Created along with 10 other specimens between 1964 and 1965, the Chesterfield consists only of polyurethane foam. This design object poses various conservation challenges today, such as dusting, worn surfaces, crumbling and loss of fragments. This presentation aims to convey the approach taken in the restoration of Andersen’s Chesterfield, from general cleaning to the recreation of losses, as well as consolidation approaches, ethical considerations during treatment and rehousing possibilities.

Speaker's biography
LAURA JACOBS is a Canadian student currently enrolled in the Master of Art Conservation (MAC) at Queen’s University, Kingston, and is completing an internship at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in the summer of 2021. Laura graduated in 2020 with a B.Sc. in Chemistry at Université Laval, Quebec City. In 2018, she was as a research assistant at Griffith University, Australia, focusing on pXRF analysis on rock art pigments in remote locations. From 2017 to 2020, she worked as a consultant at the Centre de Conservation du Québec to create a chemical inventory database, fitting the needs of the conservators.

Practical techniques for creating nanocellulose film and the application of aqueous adhesives

Author: Robin Canham
Mentor: Rosaleen Hill, Associate Professor

Institution: Department of Art History and Art Conservation, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario, Canada)
Study programme: Master of Art Conservation, 2nd year of study in a two-year degree program
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paper

Abstract
Nanocellulose is composed of nano-sized cellulose fibrils that are typically isolated from a cellulose source through high-pressure, temperature, and velocity. In the field of paper conservation, nanocellulose is being researched as a material for tear repair and paper stabilization due to its transparency and strength properties. Nanocellulose has also been studied as a material to stabilize canvasses.
Guided by Remy Dreyfuss-Deseigne’s 2017 article entitled "Nanocellulose Films in Art Conservation", several practical methods for the creation of nanocellulose films were tested using different variables such as dish type, shape, and size. This presentation will focus on outlining a practical approach for the creation of nanocellulose films, including an outline on the development of a nanocellulose calculator. Lastly, an overview for a method to apply aqueous adhesive to these films will be discussed.

Speaker's biography
ROBIN CANHAM has a Bachelor of Arts (English) from the University of Regina and a Master of Information Studies, with a focus in Library Studies, from the University of Toronto. She worked as the Digital Resources Librarian at Saskatchewan Polytechnic for thirteen years before returning to school to pursue a Master of Art Conservation degree at Queen’s University, specializing in Paper Conservation. Additionally, she is actively involved with the Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild (CBBAG) and has held positions within CBBAG since 2005. Besides making books, she enjoys weightlifting, hiking, yoga, and spending time with her house rabbit Jasper.

The study and conservation treatment of Eastern gouache painting 'Dragon Boat' dated 1930, by Tsai Hsueh-Hsi

Author: Tong Pak Heng Henry
Mentor: Lin Huan Shen, Associate Professor

Institution: National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (Taiwan)
Study programme: Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation, Tawanese art history, 4th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paper, Taiwanese art history

Abstract
Eastern gouache is a form of painting that was introduced to Taiwan from Japan during the Japanese rule of Taiwan. It uses a mixture of mineral pigment and animal glue as its medium of painting. However, Taiwan is located in a subtropical region with high temperatures and humidity throughout the year, which is not conducive to collecting paintings on paper and silk. In addition, improper storage conditions have led to human damage or natural ageing, resulting in damage to the works.
Dragon Boat as the restored work cited in this paper is an Eastern gouache painting by Tsai Shiue-Shi in 1930, which was selected for the Fourth Taiwan Art Exhibition during the Japanese rule period and is one of the most important works in modern Taiwanese art history. The work is now in a private collection. The restoration of Dragon Boat has been studied to analyze its base material and pigment application and painting techniques, as well as to consider the appropriateness of color compensation in the restoration process. In addition, the research of the restoration of Dragon Boat; will provide an important basis for future research on the art of Tsai Shiue-Shi or the restoration of Eastern gouache paintings.

Speaker's biography
TONG PAK HENG HENRY is an M.A. student in The Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation at National Yunlin University of Science and Technology. His research interests focus on the Conservation and restoration of East Asian paintings. He currently works as a lecturer for the Yunlin County Community College and Eastern gouache artist.

Conservation and restoration of two ukiyo-e woodblock prints

Author: Mirta Tonc
Mentor: Tanja Dujaković, MA, Teaching Assistant

Institution: Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Study in Conservation-Restoration, 5th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paper

Abstract
This presentation talks about Japanese Ukyio-e woodblock prints including conservation-restoration done on two woodblock prints from a private collection. The first part contains brief information about the history of painting during the Edo period. The middle section deals with the process of woodblock printing and the techniques, pigments, and tools used in its production. The final part of the presentation includes the restoration treatment carried out on the two woodblock prints.

Speaker's biography
MIRTA TONC was born in Osijek on April 23 rd, 1998. She gained her high school diploma at the Tehnical and Natural science school ‘Ruđer Bošković’, Osijek, graduating with honors in 2017 before enrolling at the University of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), joining the department of conservation-restoration of paper. She did her undergraduate study theses on the topic of Conservation and restoration of two ukiyo-e woodblock prints, graduating with honours. During her studies she worked on various paper medium artefacts and artworks and interned at the Scientific Library of Dubrovnik and at the Croatian Restoration Institute department of paper in Dubrovnik. Currently she is preparing for a 5-month internship at the private conservation studio of Rita Udina, Barcelona, Spain via the Erasmus Internship programme.

Fragile layers: Consolidation of turkey red textile pattern book designs

Author: Bethany Procopio
Mentor: Richard Mulholland, Dr., Vice Chancellor's Fellow in Art Conservation

Institution: Northumbria University (United Kingdom)
Study programme: MA Conservation of Fine Art, 2nd year of study (of two)
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of works of art on paper

Abstract
The technology and history of Turkey Red textile dying in Scotland has become a well-researched topic in the past ten years, but the pattern books used in manufacturing have received less attention. The National Museum of Scotland has entrusted a collection of pattern book pages to Northumbria University for research and conservation. These unbound sheets of newsprint paper are adhered, frequently on both sides, with elements such as paintings of the textile designs on paper, labels with hand-written text, and textile samples. This study focuses on the consolidation of the unstable painted designs, which is complicated by the structure of the object as well as the nature of the paints. The media consists of both matt and glossy paints that exhibit poor adhesion to a matt ground layer. This talk will address new research into the materiality of these designs through the hypothesis that the red ground layer may be a variation of the famous Turkey Red dye. It will discuss a reconstruction of this ‘Turkey Red paint’ based on an historic reference to create samples for comparing a number of consolidation methods with the goal of finding an appropriate treatment methodology for these unique works on paper.

Speaker's biography
BETHANY PROCOPIO began her studies in painting (BFA) at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design (USA) and finished her degree at l’Accademia di Belle Arti (Florence, Italy). She then went on to complete her MA in Comparative Art and Archaeology at University College London (UK). After years of working in different roles in galleries, museums, and schools, Procopio returned to studies to specialise in the conservation of fine art at the Hochschule der Künste (Bern, Switzerland). In 2019, Procopio began her MA in Conservation of Fine Art, specialising in Works of Art on Paper at Northumbria University.

Classification of Dubrovnik historic roof tiles ‘kanalica’

Author: Vasilija Todorović
Mentors: Kristina Kojan Goluža, PhD, Professor; Lucia Emanuele, PhD, Associate Professor

Institution: Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's programme of study in Conservation-Restoration, graduated in 2019/2020
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of ceramics

Abstract
This paper deals with the research of the Dubrovnik historical roof tiles Kanalica, which date back to the time after the earthquake of 1667., until the closure of the factory in Kupari (shortly before the First World War). In this context, different types of historical roof tiles will be analyzed and classified. Given the large differences between the materials used and the surface properties of recent roof tiles used in the reconstruction of the roofs after the 1979. earthquake and the Homeland War, questions arise about the production techniques but also for the composition of historic roof tiles. Those questions are reflected on the surfaces of the historic roof tiles, for their answering the research must be conducted and with it the creation of their glossary.

Speaker's biography
By completing graduate studies in 2020. at the University of Dubrovnik, VASILIJA TODOROVIĆ gained Master's degree in art, specializing in conservation-restoration of ceramic. In 2020. she started working on a project “Roofs of Dubrovnik: The Lost Dimension”. Through her work on the project she formed “Classification of Dubrovnik historic roof tiles Kanalica” which was presented as her thesis for Master's degree. She was also a volunteer on numerous occasions including the organization of the International Conference of Conservation and Restoration Studies (Dubrovnik, Croatia 2019 and 2015). Currently she is working as an intern at the Perast City Museum in Kotor.

Diagnostic analysis using endoscopic and microscopic investigation techniques applied in conservation-restoration of a 19th century handbag from the Ethnographic Museum in Dubrovnik

Author: Viktorija Pilon
Mentors: Danijela Jemo, PhD, Assistant Professor; Mateo Miguel Kodrič Kesovia, Research Assistant

Institution: Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik (Croatia)
Study programme: Second-Cycle Master's Programme of Conservation-Restoration, 5th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of textiles

Abstract
The 19th century handbag from the Ethnographic museum in Dubrovnik is composed of various materials. It is a part of an ethnographic costume from the Dubrovnik Littoral area (Dubrovačko primorje) dated around the second half of the 19th century. Given the fact that the handbag is composed of multiple layers of different materials it is necessary to determine the characteristics of each of those materials in order to treat them in a suitable manner. The theme of this oral presentation will be the documenting the original construction of the object and the type of textile materials and fibers that they were made of. Different methods will be used to give an insight into data collecting and different analyses that are used when documenting an object during the conservation-restoration process. More specifically, methods using digital photographs, endoscope, DinoLite digital stereomicroscope, and optical microscope will be presented together with photographs and results gathered from the object.

Speaker's biography
VIKTORIJA PILON was born in Požega, November 29th 1998. She graduated from the Natural sciences – mathematics Gymnasium in Požega in 2017. In 2020 she graduated with a Bachelor Degree from Undergraduate Study of Conservation and Restoration at the University of Dubrovnik and enrolled in a Graduate Study continuing her education in the field of textile conservation-restoration. She participated in several projects such as Modifying mannequins for ethnographic costume project that was organized by the Department of Art and Restoration, University of Dubrovnik. She attended the ICOM-CC Textiles Working Group Interim Meeting at Abegg-Stiftung in Riggisberg, Switzerland, 2019.

'Lady in Blue': Investigation of blanching through varnish application on a 16th century portrait

Author: Rachel Childers
Mentors: Patrick Ravines, Professor, Director of the Garman Art Conservation Department, New York; Fiona Beckett, Assistant Professor

Institution: State University of New York Buffalo State College (USA) — Patricia H. and Richard E. Garman Art Conservation Department, graduated in 2020

Abstract
Portrait of a Lady is a 16th century portrait of a sitter presumed to be the Madonna figure. Like many paintings its age, it has suffered immensely from harsh cleanings which has resulted in a severely blanched paint film. A full technical analysis was executed to understand the artist’s technique and identify materials; however, the primary goal was to determine a suitable treatment protocol to investigate the blanched paint layer and reintegrate the composition. Confocal microscopy was used to quantify the surface texture of the blanching both before and after the varnish and solvent applications. Based on the results, a treatment protocol using varnishes was established, and the painting showed significant improvement to the blanched surface. While more research is required to fully understand treatment options for blanching, the painting allowed for a practical approach to testing on an historical surface due to the severity of the blanching.

Student workshops in the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Dubrovnik

Author: Ana Ivković
Mentor: Suzana Damiani, MA, Professor

Institution: Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, University of Zagreb, Academy of Fine Arts (Croatia)
Study programme: Integrated undergraduate and graduate study of Conservation and Restoration, 5th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of wall paintings

Abstract
Student workshops that have been held since 2018. continued in the academic year 2019/2020. They are a part of a larger project, “Discovering old cathedrals of Dubrovnik”, which began in 2015. The primary goals set for participating students were to move archaeological fragments of medieval frescoes from poorly conditioned spaces, put them into new and safer boxes, and categorize each of them by properties and features. Each fragment was carefully observed, described and compared to other pieces. They differ in stratigraphy, mortar composition and paint layer, which are main traits by which they could be compared to in situ fragments, classified and possibly dated. Now having been sorted and stored safely, the fragments will be catalogued in a specially created database as a next step to their future presentation to the public. Within the framework of this project, analysis and dating of the different kinds of mortars were made in collaboration with other institutions.

Speaker's biography
ANA IVKOVIĆ was born on 6 th of February, 1999, in the Croatian town of Koprivnica. In year of 2017, she graduated in the „Fran Galović“ gymnasium in the Class for Natural Sciences. Since 2017, she has been studying Conservation and Restoration at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb and will soon start working on her final thesis.

Seven altars from the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary from in Sutivan on the island of Brač

Authors: Jana Siriščević, Luciana Gugić, Dominika Bilač and Rina Dubravec
Mentors: Siniša Bizjak, Assistant Professor; Ivo Donelli, Professor

Institution: Department of Conservation-Restoration, Arts Academy of the University of Split (Croatia)
Study programme: Intergrated undergraduate and graduate course of study in conservation-restoration, 5th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of stone

Abstract
The presentation contains overview of the 7 altars which are located in the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary from 16.-th century in Sutivan on the island of Brač. The church is situated on the north side of the island near the sea which caused the damage on altars due to harmful soluble salts and dust that are brought by northern wind. Mostly the damage on altars is similar on each one, such as the scattering of stone due the presence of salt, missing parts of marquetry, separation of architectural parts and impurities.

Speakers' biographies
RINA DUBRAVEC was born on April 14, 1998. In Split, Croatia. From 2012 until 2016 she attended high school for Design, graphic and sustainable construction - course of Interior architecture designer. In 2017 she enrolled in the Arts Academy in Split, course of Conservation-restoration of Stone where she is currently attending her fifth year.

JANA SIRIŠČEVIĆ was born on March 6, 1998, in Split in Croatia. From 2011 until 2016 she attended Language high school. Then in 2017. she enrolled in the Arts Academy in Split and started the course of conservation-restoration of Stone where she is currently attending her fifth year.

LUCIANA GUGIĆ was born on March 9, 1999, in Split, Croatia. From 2012 until 2016 she attended high school for Design, graphic and sustainable construction - course of Arranging set designer. In 2017. she enrolled in the Arts Academy in Split and started the course of Conservation-restoration of Stone where she is currently attending her fifth year.

DOMINIKA BILAČ was born on September 13, 1997, in Split, Croatia. From 2011 until 2016 she attended the high school of ART, a course of Photography designer. Then in 2017, she enrolled in the Arts Academy in Split and started the course of Conservation-restoration of Stone where she is currently attending her fifth year.

Street art as a part of the museum: Cleaning the mural on the plateau of the Zagreb Museum of Contemporary Art (MSU)

Author: Helena Bosnić
Mentors: Neva Pološki, MA, Associate Professor; Mirta Pavić, MA

Institution: Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, University of Zagreb, Academy of Fine Arts (Croatia)
Study programme: Intergrated undergraduate and graduate study of Conservation and Restoration, graduated on 2021
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of paintings

Abstract
The Mural Open My Eyes That I May See by OKO, painted in 2015 on the west wall of the plateau of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, was vandalized shortly after its creation, and the degrading graffiti was covered with white paint. Such a condition was not acceptable to the artist or the museum users and it was decided to remove the non-original additions. This presentation deals with the problem of graffiti cleaning, an issue that will be more prevalent due to the expansion of contemporary murals in public spaces. Cleaning tests were done on mock-ups that faithfully mimic the original technology of the mural and the overpaint. The selected method was later applied to the wall itself. Gels were selected for the removal of two types of overpaint due to the ability to control factors such as the amount and type of active substance, depth of penetration and time of action. The obtained data was crucial for planning future conservation and restoration works on the museum mural.

Speaker's biography
HELENA BOSNIĆ - Ambitious 5th year student of the integrated undergraduate and graduate study of Conservation and Restoration at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb. Involved in a number of extracurricular activities, including numerous art exhibitions one of which resulted in the Rector’s Award. Currently working on a master thesis at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, on the topic of conservation of three different artworks, on paper, canvas, and wall.

The restoration of the Marcolino Gandini’s artwork 'Senza Titolo', mixed media on wood, 1966

Author: Chiarra Fabbri
Mentors: Roberto Bestetti, Professor, Private Conservator; Ilaria Saccani, Professor, Conservation Scientist; Mirella Baldan, Professor, Diagnostician, Geologist

Institution: Academia Aldo Galli (Italy)
Study programme: Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, graduated 26 November 2020
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage

Abstract
The object is the restoration of Senza Titolo, a contemporary painted sculpture made by Marcolino Gandini in 1966. With the aim of preserving artwork’s history and its meaning, respectful and recognizable solutions have been designed. Before the restoration the Gandini’s family has been contacted and Tito Gandini, the son of the artist, has been interviewed. After the approval of Gandini’s family for the restoration, a cleaning with semi-humid methodology has been performed by creating aqueous solutions, Ph and conductivity adjusted. For the aesthetic presentation a reversable retouching with microcrystalline wax was executed, to guarantee the artwork’s transmission to the future.

Speaker's biography
CHIARA FABBRI is a Conservator of Cultural Heritage graduated at Accademia “Aldo Galli” of Como. During her studies she had the opportunity to know some Museal Institutions, to work in team and to participate in laboratory research and conferences about the restoration of contemporary art. Her thesis research was about the restoration of the contemporary artwork Senza Titolo, made by Marcolino Gandini in 1966. This work will be presented at the conference.

Degradation of the outdoor wooden sculptures from Forma Viva Park in Kostanjevica: Documentation on a case study and conservation guidelines

Authors: Lara Skukan and Ana Sterle
Mentors: Tamara Trček Pečak, Professor; Denis Trček, PhD, Professor

Institution: Department for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Study programme: Conservation and restoration of works of art, 5th year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of polychrome sculptures and paintings

Abstract
In 2019, the project Erasmus+ - Re-Forma Viva was announced, focused on the digitization of outdoor wooden sculptures, from the sculpture park Forma Viva in Kostanjevica, using 3D technology. The sculpture park is a symposium that has been running annually from 1961. to 1988. and biennially since 1998. During this period, more than 100 sculptures were created out of locally gathered oak. Using wood for outdoor sculptures is a challenging and complex choice of material. The artists should consider physical and biological aspects of the wood, due to the environmental factors causing wood decay, etc. However, doing so can restrict artistic freedom thus artists did not contemplate those limitations during their working process. All above-mentioned can be observed in the Forma Viva sculpture park and it inevitably ended in the collapse of many sculptures. Given the financial incapacity of providing adequate care, the sculptures are degrading quickly, need regular care and conservation-restoration treatment.
With this in mind, we created graphical documentation in 2D and 3D perspectives that greatly contributed to visual capturing of the damages and the condition. Through research following modern conservation criteria, we managed to form extensive guidelines covering the artistic methodology, thorough conservation documentation, treatment proposal, and monitoring.

Speakers' biographies
LARA SKUKAN was born in Ljubljana, on October 19, 1996. In 2015 she started studies in the conservation of works of art at the University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, where she graduated in 2019. She is now a student of a postgraduate program of conservation of easel paintings at the University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design.

ANA STERLE was born in Ljubljana, on October 11, 1996. In 2015 she started studies in the conservation of works of art at the University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design. In 2019 she studied conservation of contemporary art at ESAPA, Spain and the same year graduated at the University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design. She is now a student of a postgraduate program of conservation of easel paintings at the University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design.

Identification of photographic processes

Author: Laura-Cassandra Vălean
Mentor: Márta Júlia Guttmann, Assistant Professor

Institution: Department of History, Heritage and Protestant Theology; Faculty of Social and Human Sciences; Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ULBS) (Romania)
Study programme: Conservation-restoration study, 2nd year of study
Specialization: Conservation-restoration of wood and photographic materials

Abstract
In 2021., for seven weeks (15 February - 4 April 2021), LAURA-CASSANDRA VALEAN had the opportunity to attend the online course organised by Gawain Weaver - Care and Identification of Photographs. During this period, she has learned about the history of photography, the identification process, and the main aspects of conserving photographic materials. Therefore, Laura-Cassandra wanted to apply in her field of specialization what she had learned on the photographic collections found in some Romanian cultural institutions, starting with the identification process. This is the first step to take to conserve photographic materials for a long time because knowing the structure and the component materials one can recognize their inherent vulnerabilities. In her presentation, Laura-Cassandra will talk about the tools she used to analyze the photographs and the main characteristics of each process. After that, she will present some examples of photographs she examined and the processes she identified, highlighting the characteristic features.

Speaker's biography
LAURA-CASSANDRA VăLEAN is currently studying Conservation and Restoration as an undergraduate student at the Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu. In high school she was passionate about Romanian traditional art, and this was one of the reasons she chose this specialization. For two years she was a volunteer at a wood restoration workshop and at the restoration of an UNESCO wooden church from Maramureș, she recently completed a course about care and identification of photographic materials (Care and Identification of Photographs Online Workshop organised by Gawain Weave).

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